Развитие сельскохозяйственных кооперативов в Кыргызстане: кто является ведущим актором?

Назик Бейшеналы1* , Фредерик Дюфайс1,2

1Факультет бизнеса и экономики, Левенский университет, Наамсестраат 69, бокс 3530 — 3000 Левен, Бельгия.

2Высшая школа экономики, Льежский университет, площадь 20-го августа, н.7, 4000, Льеж, Бельгия.

E-mail: nazik.beishenaly@kuleuven.be

https://doi.org/10.29258/CAJWR/2021-R1.v7-2/138-157.eng
Аннотация

Сельскохозяйственные кооперативы играют важную роль в развитии местных сообществ и устойчивых методов ведения сельского хозяйства во многих регионах мира. В Кыргызстане их развитие остается сложной задачей, несмотря на наличие законов и мер госполитики, проектов, финансируемых донорами, и наличия ассоциации кооперативов. Что препятствует их развитию и кто должен быть основным актором развития кооперативов? Применяя подход предпринимательской экосистемы (ПЭ) к анализу сельскохозяйственных кооперативов, мы постарались определить основных акторов развития сельскохозяйственных кооперативов в Кыргызстане и понять, какую роль они играют в возникновении и укреплении ПЭ для сельскохозяйственных кооперативов. Используя метод контент-анализа, мы извлекли данные, опубликованные в период с 1991 по 2020 гг.  о сельскохозяйственных кооперативах в Кыргызстане, включая законодательные акты и государственные политики, публикации кооперативов и их ассоциации, а также исследования международных организаций. Мы проанализировали данные, используя метод обоснованной теории, организовали коды  и текстовые выдержки вокруг элементов и акторов ПЭ. Таким образом, мы определили, какую роль играют три основных актора кооперативного развития, а именно государство, кооперативы и их ассоциация, а также международные организации, в различных сегментах ПЭ: в госполитике, развитии навыков и образовании, в развитии благоприятной рыночной среды, культуры и партнерских связей и сетей. Среди результатов, мы обнаружили, что роль ведущего актора может меняться в зависимости от сегментов ПЭ, но при этом присутствует следующий парадокс: ожидания государства и кооперативов несоразмерны с их финансовыми возможностями, в то время как международные организации, имея ресурсы для финансирования развитие кооперативов, не считают их приоритетными для своих проектах. Несмотря на то, что данное исследование имеет ряд ограничений, оно, тем не менее, производит теоретический вклад и расширяет ПЭ подход к изучению сельскохозяйственных кооперативов в странах с переходной экономикой, и имеет потенциал практического применения для лучшего понимания и включения сельскохозяйственных кооперативов в международные программы развития.

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Для цитирования: Beishenaly, N., & Dufays, F. (2021). Development of agricultural cooperatives in Kyrgyzstan : who are the lead actors? Central Asian Journal of Water Research, 7(2), 138–157. https://doi.org/10.29258/CAJWR/2021-R1.v7-2/138-157.eng

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ведущий актор, Кыргызстан, предпринимательские экосистемы, сельскохозяйственные кооперативы, устойчивое развитие

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