The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Tajikistan: The Role of Water User Associations in improving Energy and Food Security
Ronan Shenhav1*, Daler Domullodzhanov2
1University of Groningen, Department of International Relations
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tajikistan’s agricultural sector suffers from a highly inefficient use of water and energy resources. As a country that is heavily dependent on energy-intensive pumping irrigation, wastage of water and electricity has severe impact on the country’s energy and food security. The recent opening of potential energy exports further highlights these practises. Water User Associations (WUAs) can mitigate the delicate balance between water, energy and food in Tajikistan. Although they are often still underdeveloped, WUAs can address challenges that hinder agricultural energy efficiency. This paper suggests some low and no-cost technical and policy solutions.Download the article
- Energy Charter Secretariat, 2013. In-Depth Energy Efficiency Review: Tajikistan. Available at: http://www.energycharter.org/fileadmin/DocumentsMedia/IDEER/IDEER-Tajikistan_2013_en.pdf (visited 19.10. 2016).
- The World Bank, 2017. The Costs of Irrigation Inefficiency in Tajikistan. Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/116581486551262816/pdf/ACS21200-WP-P129682-PUBLIC-TheCostsofIrrigationInefficiencyinTajikistan.pdf (visited 11.03. 2017).
- Barqi Tojik, 2015. Electricity consumption by consumer group in 2015. [Written communication].
- Swinnen, J. and Van Herck, K., 2013. Food Security and Sociopolitical Stability in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Edited by Christopher B. Barrett. Food Security and Sociopolitical Stability.
- Government of Tajikistan, 2015. Water Sector Reforms Programme of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2016-2025.
- World Bank, 2013. Winter Energy Crisis: Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives. Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/500811468116363418/pdf/796160PUB0REPL00Box377374B00PUBLIC0.pdf (visited 21.09.2016).
- Government of Tajikistan, 2014. Sustainable Energy for All: Tajikistan, Rapid Assessment and Gap Analysis.
- Barqi Tojik, 2016. Energy Sector in Tajikistan. [Written communication].
- Government of Tajikistan, 2011. Resolution 551 of the Government of Tajikistan ‘Programme for the efficient use of hydropower resources and energy 2012-2016’.
- Government of Tajikistan, 2007. Resolution 500 of the Government of Tajikistan ‘Concept of Transition of the Republic of Tajikistan to Sustainable Development’.
- SNC-Lavalin, 2011. Central Asia – South Asia Electricity Transmission and Trade (CASA-1000) Project Feasibility Study Update. Available at: http://www.casa-1000.org/1)Techno-EconomicFeasbilityStudy_MainRep_English.pdf (visited 09.10.2016).
- World Food Programme, 2009. Food Security Bulletin Tajikistan. Available at: http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp208031.pdf?_ga=1.181901351.1218971891.1489280143.
- Government of Tajikistan, 2010. Public Employment for Sustainable Agriculture and Water Management Project: Environmental Assessment and Generic Environmental Management Plan.
- Food and Agriculture Organization, 2009. FAO Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission to Tajikistan. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/ak339e/ak339e00.htm (visited 08.03.2017).
- USAID Feed the Future, 2014. Zone of Influence Baseline Report.
- World Bank, 2014. Tajikistan Partnership Program Snapshot. Available at: http://ekh.rrcap.ait.asia/sites/default/files/webdata/drupal/uploads/Tajikistan-Snapshot.pdf.
- Government of Tajikistan, 1996. The Land Code of the Republic of Tajikistan.
- Agency of Land Reclamation and Irrigation of the Republic of Tajikistan, 2016. First Meeting of National Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (with Bahrom Ghaforzoda). Dushanbe, 28 October 2016.
- Asian Development Bank, 2011. Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Power Sector Master Plan. Available at: https://www.adb.org/projects/43549-012/main (visited 19.10.2016).
- Abdullaev, I., Ul Hassan, H., and Manthrithilake, M., 2006. The Reliability Improvement in Irrigation Services: Application of Rotational Water Distribution to Tertiary Canals in Central Asia. Tashkent: IWMI Research Report.
- Abdullaev, I., Nurmetova, F., Abdullaeva, F., and Lamer, J., 2008. Socio-technical aspects of water management in Uzbekistan: emerging water governance issues at the grass root level. Edited by M. Rahaman and O. Varis, Central Asian Water.
- Government of Tajikistan, 2006. “Water Users Association” Law of the Republic of Tajikistan # 387.
- Rahmatilloev, R., 2002. Organizational aspects of improvement of water management at the on-farm level in the transition to a market economy in irrigated agriculture in Tajikistan.
- Zavgordnyaya, D., 2006. WUAs in Uzbekistan: theory and practice. PhD thesis, University of Bonn.
- Wegerich, K., 2008. Blueprints for water user associations’ accountability versus local reality: evidence from South Kazakhstan. Water International, 33, no. 1, pp. 43-54.
- Abdullaev, I., 2010. Water User Groups in Central Asia: Emerging Form of Collective Action in Irrigation Water Management. Water Resources Management 24, no. 1030.
- Akhroroval, A., Mukimova, N., and Razykov, R., 2013. The energy security of the Republic of Tajikistan. Energy Production and Management in the 21st Century, p. 190.
- Jalilov, S.M., Varis, O. and Keskinen, M., 2015. Sharing benefits in transboundary rivers: An experimental case study of Central Asian water-energy-agriculture nexus. Water (Switzerland) 7, no. 9, pp. 4778–4805.
- Barqi Tojik, 2016. Power generation in Tajikistan from 2010 to 2016. [Written communication].
- Agency of Statistics under the Government of Tajikistan, 2016. The population of the Republic of Tajikistan on 1 of January 2016. Available at: http://www.stat.tj/en/ (visited 12.03. 2017).
- World Bank. 2017. GDP per capita in Tajikistan (current US$). World Bank Data. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?contextual=default&locations=TJ-RU (visited 03.08. 2017).
- Government of Tajikistan, 2015. Order # RP-594 of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan.
- Food and Agriculture Organization, 2003. Water Charging in Irrigated Agriculture. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5690e/y5690e0b.htm (visited 08.03.2017).
- Government of Tajikistan, 1996. Degree #281: On the procedure for charging for water supply services from state irrigation and watering systems.
- Irrigation Training and Research Center, California Polytechnic State University, Report 02-010, 2010. Available at: http://www.itrc.org/reports/pdf/replogleflume.pdf (visited 22.03.2017).