Tillakarim Т.А, Kauazov А.М., Gafurov А.
The article presents the snow water equivalent (SWE) dynamics in the Yesil Water Management Basin during 1971-2019.
Kussainova M.D., Toishimanov M.R., Tamenov T.B., Syzdyk A.B., Jiquan Ch.
The relevance of the research lies in the application of the Li-8100 (Campbell Scientific) automated system for continuousmeasurement of CO2 emissions from soil corresponding to various cultivation techniques (no tillage, application of manure-based and mineral fertilizers) and various main crops (corn, wheat, rye) in Almaty Region.
V. Lobanov, Zh. Naurozbayeva
In the Caspian Sea, fogs of varying intensity are observed throughout the year. The research aimed to determine the number of days with fog and their duration (in hours) for each month from 1970 (1986) to 2020 at four meteorological stations: Kulaly Island, Fort Shevchenko, Tushchibek, and Aktau.
M. Severinenko, V. Solodukhin, S. Lennik, G. Kabirova, A. Bychenko
The article describes the monitoring results of the content of chemical elements (As, Cr, B, Ba, Li, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, and Cr) in the water of transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan (Shagan, Ural (kaz. Zhayik), Ilek, Tobol, Ayat, Irtysh (kaz. Yertys), Emel, Ili (kaz. Ile), Tekes, Shu, Kara-Balta, Talas, and Syr Darya) conducted in 2020. The toxic element concentrations underwent comparison with background levels (Clark[e] numbers) and maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), with sub-sequent calculation of the total toxicity index (KHL).
A. Kalachev, K. Okanov, S. Rogovsky
The article presents the results of examining the formation and peculiarities of snow cover in fir plantations compared to open shrubland in the conditions of Southwestern Altai obtained during 2020-2021 snow period. The forest stand affects snow distribution and characteristics in fir woods by capturing snow with tree crowns, snow accumulation around crown perimeter and, as a result, leads to the formation of near-trunk snowdrifts, in their turn facilitating higher snow accumulation among trees and at forest edges.
O. Kalashnikova, J. Niyazov, A. Nurbatsina, S. Kodirov, Yu. Radchenko, Z. Kretova
The research was carried out as part of the preparation “Water Resources” section of the 4th National Communication of the Kyrgyz Republic to the UNFCCC. The article presents extensive information on the current state and changes over a long period of observations of water resources, climate and glaciation in Kyrgyzstan (Syr-Darya and Amu-Darya river basins). The representative rivers were selected as the main objects, which are transboundary between Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan.
Abdul Baqi Ahady, Hakan Uyguçgil, Ali Arda Sorman
The density of meteorological stations in most watersheds across the globe is far lower than recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
Bharat Rattan, Ankit Garg , Sreedeep Sekharan, Lingaraj Sahoo
The effect of climate/environmental change has resulted in adverse water stress conditions which necessitates the sustainable approaches for improving the water use efficiency to boost agricultural production in Central Asia. Water-absorbing polymer (WAP) has emerged as one of the amendments for soil water stress management. WAP are chemically cross-linked structure capable of absorbing and storing a large amount of water.
Tazhekeyev A.A., Alibay B., Zhusipnazar M.I.
The research described in the paper aimed to investigate the Golden Horde sites in the Aral Sea Basin and human adaptation to the region’s changing ecology. At present, several known settlements at the drained Aral Sea bottom – namely, Kerderi-1, Kerderi-2, and Aral-Asar – testify to the lake’s shallowness during XII-XV centuries.
Bota Sharipova, Nataliya Chemayeva
This article aims to introduce different views regarding the concept of adaptive capacity in water governance and unpack it in the Central Asian context, specifically. The desk study research built on the recommendations provided by the academia, policy papers and by experts on enhancing adaptive water governance.
Niels Thevs, Kumar Aliev
Purpose: This study investigated the water consumption (crop evapotranspiration) of industrial hemp on a newly established hemp field in Aqmola Region of Northern Kazakhstan. Methodology: The water consumption of hemp was investigated through direct measurements of the sapflow movement during the second half of the growing season 2021.
This article presents a new tree-ring chronology of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.) developed based on the samples collected at the upper tree limit of the northern Tien Shan (southeastern part of Kazakhstan).
Juma Khan Tahera, M. Najim Nasimib, M. Nasim Nasimic, Scott E. Boyced
In Afghanistan, about 1/3 (12.5 mln) of the total population have no access to stable water supplies such as groundwater extraction, stream flow diversion, and reservoir storage. In areas with limited water sources, rainwater harvesting (RWH) can improve the availability of potable water.
Kabutov H.K., Kayumov A., Saks T., Navruzshoev H.D., Vosidov F.K., Nekkadamova N.M., Khalimov A.M.
Mountain glaciers, including the poorly examined glaciers of Lake Karakul Basin, are considered the most vulnerable part of the cryosphere directly reacting to the changing climatic conditions.
Navruzshoev H.D., Sagintaev Zh., Kabutov H.K., Nekkadamova N.M., Vosidov F.K., Khalimov A.M.
This article discusses mountain lakes that pose a threat to settlements and infrastructure, located downstream on the example of the lakes Rivakkul and Nimatskul in the Gunt river basin. In recent decades, the number and area of lakes have grown at an accelerated pace due to the reduction of glaciers in this basin, where there are more than 600 mountain lakes.
Khaydarov A., Petrov G., Mitusov A.
The article aims to assess the reserves of water conservation in irrigated agriculture in Central Asia (CA) compared with Israel. We compared specific water consumption, precipitation, and evapotranspiration indicators during the growing season.
Mohammad Hamid Hamdard, Ilkhom Soliev,Hafizullah Rasouli, Bjørn Kløve, Kaltoum Belhassan
The research focused on assessing groundwater quality in Jawharkel, Ghanikhel, Chak, Mandukhel, Dawrankhel, Noorkhel, Baba Qala, Sanikhel, Muhkumkhel, and Rasheeddan villages, and specifically intended to measure groundwater physical and chemical parameters in the mountainous areas of the Chak Karstic Sedimentary Basin in Chak District, Wardak Province, located in Afghanistan’s central part.
Navruz Nekbakhtshoev, Suresh Chandra Babu
This paper examines the preconditions for collective action in the context of Water User Associations (WUAs) in Tajikistan. The paper uses qualitative case studies of five WUAs from three cotton-producing districts of Khatlon region in Tajikistan. Findings suggest that the ability of WUAs to generate collective action for the benefit of the rural community depends on factors internal and external to WUAs.
Suresh Chandra Babu, Kamiljon Akramov
This paper documents the food and agricultural policy process in the context of agrarian reforms in Tajikistan. It uses the case study of Tajikistan and applies a recently developed conceptual framework for understanding the drivers of policy change. It undertakes a historical review of agrarian reforms and appraises current policy challenges within the food and agricultural sector.
Richard Pomfret, Nodir Djanibekov
In 1991, when the five Central Asian countries became independent, most of their population was rural and about a third of the workforce was in agriculture. Collective farming was predominant, and land reform was an important component in the transition to a market-based economy.
E.A. Zeybert, N.G. Akinshina, A.V. Mitusov
This study aimed to investigate the dust-retaining capacity of tree crowns and analyze the possibility of utilizing this parameter to assess the air dust content in different parts of Tashkent City.
Zh. Khaibullina, A. Amantaikyzy, D. Ariphanova, R. Temirbayeva, A. Mitusov, Zh. Zhurumbetova
The research aimed to investigate the impacts of climate change and water availability on the socio-economic aspects and overall health of the population in Aral District of Kyzylorda Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The study was based on the following indicators: demographic characteristics of fertility, mortality (total, infant, maternal), natural population growth and life expectancy, population health indicators, disease incidence growth due to adverse ecology and harsh climate in 2005- 2019.
Sabqatullah Alipour , Mohammad Zaman Amini , Mohammad Daud Haidari
Due to declining water resources allocated to agriculture and rapid population growth, it is important to use water efficiently and increase crop water productivity (CWP). Deficit irrigation is considered an important strategy to achieve this goal. For this purpose, field experiments were conducted at the research farm of the Agriculture Faculty on Kabul University campus for two continuous years (2018-2019).
Qurban Aliyar, Neil Collins
Drought is one of the significant impacts of climate change affecting agricultural productivity and subsistence for Afghanistan’s farmers. Producers have applied various adaptation measures making use of their native resources in response to drought. Studying the cases of the Panjab and Waras districts in the south of Bamyan province of Afghanistan, this research aims to analyse Afghan farmers’ drought adaptation strategies.
he development and conservation of water and soil in the Kabul River Basin are critical for ensuring its sustainable economic, social, and environmental progress. Since the watershed drains across the international borders into the Indus River Basin, it is key for both up- and downstream countries to thoroughly plan their resource development and management.
This study presents a novel Decision Support System (DSS), combining hydrology, economics, engineering, and social aspects, aimed to participatory management, using simple concepts, and discussing assumptions for working with limited data, and useful parameters to estimate.
T. Adayev, T. Barakbayev, S. Sharakhmetov
The article reviews the issues of forming fish populations and studying the current state of commercial fish species in the delta lakes of the Syrdarya River for subsequent effective development of fish farming. In 2020, research works were carried out on lakes Akbilek, Tushchy, Shomishkol, Karakol and Akshatau-Sorgak of Aral District of Kyzylorda Region.
The article reviews the latest available statistical information on gender inequalities in labor markets and in access to financial institutions, social services, and education. After a general review of agricultural development, household food security and rural poverty, population structure, and labor outmigration in Central Asia, the article examines the women’s role in the labor market, including both formal and informal female employment, the feminization of agriculture in the region, gender gaps in education and wages, and constraints on women’s access to extension services and land ownership.
This review paper analyzes the question of how Central Asian countries are presented in land governance indices and assessment frameworks such as the World Bank’s Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF), Global Property Rights Index (Prindex), Global Land Governance Index (LANDex), and The Open Data Barometer. The paper uses the integrative review of academic works and the author’s empirical data on Central Asian performance in land governance indices and assessment programs.
A.K. Sultanbekova, A.V. Mitusov, A. Azami, J.M. Sagintayev
This article aims to introduce into the community of Central Asian hydrologists, hydrogeologists, and farmers the idea of the possibility of applying the kariz technologies and constructing them based on the experiences of neighboring countries and the ancient settlement of Sauran (Turkestan Region, Kazakhstan). Satellite imagery allowed identifying 3 (three) karizes around Sauran. The subsequent geomorphological analyses of the digital elevation model was carried out using the specialized ECO GIS-software.
Etenesh B. Asfaw
This paper attempts to assess the process and results of the State-driven transition from the centrally planned cotton sector to private cotton-textile clusters. The article employs secondary data sources to analyse the effects of the deregulation policies descriptively. The study reveals that the deregulation reforms increased productivity in the sector.
Nazik Beishenaly, Frédéric Dufays
Agricultural cooperatives play an important role in promoting local communities and sustainable farming practices in many parts of the world. In Kyrgyzstan their development remains a challenge despite the existence of laws and policies, support from donor-funded projects and the existence of an apex organisation. What is missing for their development and who should lead their development?
Zh.K. Salmukhanbetova, A.A. Imanalinova, L.A. Dimeyeva, N.E. Zverev
The article aims to assess the survival rate of saxaul plantations on the dry seabed of the Aral Sea (DSAS) and these close to the villages along the original coast.
G. Tulemisova, A. Amangosova, R. Abdinov, G. Kabdrakhimova, В. Dzhanzakova
The article demonstrates the results of research on concentration of heavy metals in waters of Ural-Caspian basin. One of the most objective and reliable indicators of water pollution and the general anthropogenic load on it is the content of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments (mud’s) and biota.
Water security in Central Asia has been discussed by researchers and international organizations using hydrological, engineering, and modeling approaches. Various frameworks conceptualize water security through technical, socio-economic, and environmental aspects.
B. Masoomi, N. Jaafarzadeh, T. Tabatabaie, S. Jorfi
The study investigated the effects of pre-ozonation on the parameters such as turbidity, color, chlorophyll and TOC on a pilot scale. The investigation results indicate that the amount of required ozone to remove TOC, color and turbidity depends on the quality of inlet water, and the efficiency of water ozonation depends on the process factors such as ozone dose, temperature, pH and ozone-water contact time.
A. Alamanos, Q. Zeng
Covering increasing water demand for competitive uses with limited resources is becoming one of the most challenging water management issues. The effects are more evident in arid areas, where conflicts are more likely to occur. Such an example is Urumqi County, China; Urumqi River is the main water supply source, and in order to balance the upstream agricultural water demand and the downstream urban water demand, the government imposed fallow measures.
S. Е. Sharakhmetov, T. R. Barakbayev, T. O. Adayev
The study aimed to assess the efficiency of the pilot hydro-acoustic (sonar) fish protection device (SFPD) installed at the Kokaral Dam of the Small Aral Sea. For this purpose, between August 27 and September 5, 2020 experimental and control fish catching was carried out using fixed fishing nets (30×60 mm mesh).
A. Azami, J. Sagin, S. Sadat, H. Hejran
In Afghanistan, water is mostly used for agricultural purposes. The water supply chain requires updating to ensure its sustainability. Different irrigation methods – such as surface water based irrigation (via canals), groundwater based irrigation, and the Karez irrigation system – are applied across the country. Considering the compatibility of the Karez system with the environment, it can be deemed the most effective irrigation scheme, as it allows collecting a significant amount of groundwater and conveying it to land surface via sub-horizontal tunnels using gravity. This article analyzes Afghanistan’s Karez irrigation systems currently feeding water to over 170,000 ha of farmland with a potential to expand and become a component of sustainable water supply chain.
E. Krupa, S. Barinova, S. Romanova, M. Aubakirova, N. Ainabaeva
The study aimed to define the classes in the Heavy Metals Section of the Regional Environmental Ranking System based on long-term data (1997-2017). When distinguishing water quality classes, the following factors were taken into account: background content of heavy metals, content of heavy metals in water bodies exposed to different levels and character of anthropogenic pollution, and response of biological communities to toxic pollution of their natural habitats.
The article analyses the press coverage of gendered labour division in Uzbekistan’s water sector. The study focused on the content, types, methods, forms, techniques and principles of gendered labour division coverage in the Narodnoye Slovo [Popular Word], Pravda Vostoka [The Truth of the East], and Darakchi [The Reporter] newspaper periodicals.
J.B. Niyazov, O.Yu. Kalashnikova, A.A. Gafurov
The article investigates the possibility of using snow cover satellite data for short-term hydrological forecasting for Central Asian rivers with high-altitude catchments. The research aimed to elaborate a methodology for forecasting mean 10-day (decadal) river discharge (MDD) of the Varzob and Tar Rivers based on MODSNOW-processed MODIS satellite imagery.
Normakhmedova, Z.O., Mitusov, A.V., Kurbonov N.B.
This article presents the study results of the change dynamics in the chemical composition of water in Lake Iskanderkul and the rivers flowing into it, as well as the comparison of water quality in the water bodies of the Iskanderkul Basin and several mid-stream tributaries of the Zarafshan River.
The article aims to analyze water resources use in the Zarafshan River Basin, including calculating the amount of water that can be saved by introducing water-efficient irrigation technologies; testing the hypothesis of the possibility of restoring the Zarafshan’s runoff as a tributary of the Amudarya River, as it was in ancient time; reviewing the experience of developed countries in injecting wastewater into deep aquifers, and the possibility of introducing the corresponding practices in Uzbekistan.
Zarylbek Rakhmatilla uulu, Ryskul Usubaliyev, Andrey V. Mitusov
The research group extends sincere gratitude to the reader for the interest in the article and for spending time on addressing the editorial office. The main criticism is expressed in the following phrase: “Thus, 6 (six) satellite images covering 24 years, each of them corresponding to a different season (from July 1 to October 6), cannot characterize the long-term glacier albedo dynamics” [Terekhov, 2020].
Mohammad Assem Mayar, Hamidullah Asady, Jonathan Nelson
Saiyed Momin Nori
Nora Tesch, Niels Thevs
Mohammad Hamid Hamdard, Ilkhom Soliev, Li Xiong, Bjørn Kløve
One of the study’s objectives was formulated as the analysis of long-term dynamics of the broadband snow and ice albedo of the Ak-Shyjrak Mountain Massif’s glaciers. 6 (six) LANDSAT satellite images taken during 1994-2018 were used to accomplish it.
Sebastian Schmidt, Lars Gerlitz
Climate research in Central Asia is usually based on the analysis of meteorological observations.
Mirzakhayot Ibrakhimov, Usman Khalid Awan, Murodjon Sultanov, Akmal Akramkhanov, Kakhramon Djumaboev, Christopher Conrad, John Lamers.
The paper gives an assessment of the hydroecological state of the river’s delta by using the data from the Karateren and Kazalinsk gauging stations.
With the development of shipping in the Caspian Sea, the need for high-quality data on wave characteristics has increased. In the present work, the analysis of maximum wave height at coastal stations in Kazakhstan was carried out using wave and wind data and numerical modeling with the SWAN model.
Zarylbek Rakhmatilla uulu, Ryskul Usubaliyev, Andrey V. Mitusov
This paper discusses the interplay between domestic law and international law taking the example of transboundary environmental assessment.
A. Zaryab, S.J. Japarkhanov
Shah-wa-Arus Dam is currently being built on Shakardara river, in northwest of Kabul province, 22 km from Kabul city, Afghanistan.
Eva Strenge, Niels Thevs, Kumar Aliev, Maksat Eraaliev, Petra Lang, Azim Baibagysov
Agriculture in Central Asia largely relies on irrigation. The water is withdrawn from the rivers of the region, which predominantly originate from snowfields and glaciers.
For tackling the problems of city flood and water pollution, the Sponge City program was established in 2014. Although the Sponge City program is newly established, it exacerbates hot disputes in the Chinese academic research field.
Central Asia is an integral part of the Belt and Road (B&R) initiative and the management of water resources is a critical issue in the region.
WUAs can address challenges that hinder agricultural energy efficiency. This paper suggests some low and no-cost technical and policy solutions.
Katy Unger-Shayesteh, Lars Gerlitz, Sergiy Vorogushyn