Authors should classify their paper by using the following types, choosing one that most closely describes their paper:
Research paper. This category covers papers which report on any type of research undertaken by the author(s). The research may involve the construction or testing of a model or framework, action research, testing of data, market research or surveys, empirical, scientific or clinical research.
Suggested standard structure of the body of research manuscripts (after the Title, Abstract, Keyword, Paper type):
- Introduction, including a purpose, general structure of the paper, theoretical framework/state of research;
- Methods/Material and Methods;
- Discussion and Conclusion (might be two separate sections);
- Annex(es) (if applicable);
- List of references
Opinion paper. Any paper, where content is dependent on the author's opinion and interpretation, this also includes journalistic pieces. A paper states a scientific fact by providing a scientific based argumentation. References should be given for every fact.
Suggested structure is:
- Introduction including a purpose, general structure of the paper, short listed arguments, and opinion;
- Main body with one paragraph for each argument (between 3-5 arguments in total), explained in detail. Opposing argument is possible.
- Conclusion with opinion and summary of arguments in different words.
This type of papers can also discuss (in support or denial) statements of other scientific publications like articles, letters or opinion papers
Technical paper. Describes and evaluates technical products, processes or services.
Conceptual paper. This type of papers is not based on research but develops hypotheses. The papers are to be discursive and cover philosophical discussions and comparative studies of others' work and thinking.
Case study. Case studies describe findings and outcomes of a research project which applies an already established methodology. The paper should not extend over more than 5 pages and follow the structure of a research paper (see above). As the methodology has been already published elsewhere it should only be described in an overview with special focus on deviations. Results and outcomes should be discussed in comparison to other projects applying a similar methodology.
Literature review. The main purpose of the paper is to annotate and/or critique the literature in a particular subject area. It may provide advice on information sources or cover the main contributors to the development of a topic and explore their different views.
Book review. Book reviews focus on recently published books of high interest for research on the water- reared topics. The papers should not exceed 2 pages. The review starts with the publication data, followed by a summary. The main part starts with a short introduction about the context of the publication, the addressed audience and the authors/editors. After that the content of the book is reflected by the author of the review and outstanding findings should be highlighted. The paper finishes with an evaluation and recommendation for potential readers of the book.
Letter. Letters are short contributions on “outstanding findings” of original research. These can be of preliminary character of ongoing projects where full papers may follow at a later stage. Alternatively, it can also be the presentation of a single result of high interest, when the remaining project outcomes are more suitable for a Case Study.
Policy Brief. Policy brief is a brief presentation of scientific results for decision makers. These short papers address a non-specialized audience, (e.g. policy makers, interested public). A policy brief may present the outcomes and lessons learned from a project or provide the background to a scientific topic in the general discussion. For usability, authors should focus on one topic only. The papers should not exceed 4 pages.