Agrarian Reforms and Food Policy Process in Tajikistan
Suresh Chandra Babu*, Kamiljon Akramov
International Food Policy Research Institute, 1201 Eye Street, Washington, DC 20005, USA
This article belongs to the Special Section “30 years of farm restructuring and water management reforms in Central Asia”
This paper documents the food and agricultural policy process in the context of agrarian reforms in Tajikistan. It uses the case study of Tajikistan and applies a recently developed conceptual framework for understanding the drivers of policy change. It undertakes a historical review of agrarian reforms and appraises current policy challenges within the food and agricultural sector. Using specific tools to study power relations, financing, and information flows in the policy process, it maps institutional architecture and key stakeholders in the pre- and post-soviet era. Information gathered through focused group discussions, key informant interviews, and recent field research on food and agricultural policy issues is used to analyze factors that drive different stages of the policy making process. We find that understanding the
political economy and policy process interface in Tajikistan is key for designing and implementing successful policy interventions. While progress has been made, agrarian reforms towards improving land tenure rights, strengthening WUAs, providing crop insurance against drought, are the necessary steps in a larger policy discussion. Ensuring the effectiveness of land reforms, building agricultural extension system, and supporting agricultural research systems are examples of some key initiatives that the government should focus on. Investments in transportation, storage, credit facilities, and markets involving private sector will speed up the reform process.
Available in English
For citation: Babu, S. C., & Akramov, K. (2022). Agrarian Reforms and Food Policy Process in Tajikistan. Central Asian Journal of Water Research, 8(1), 27–48. https://doi.org/10.29258/CAJWR/2022-R1.v8-1/27-48.eng
Akramov, K. T. and Shreedhar, G. (2012). Economic development, external shocks, and food security in Tajikistan. Discussion Paper 1163. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Babu, S. C. (2013). Policy process and food price crisis: A framework for analysis and lessons from country studies(No. 2013/070). WIDER Working Paper.
Babu, S. C. and Blom, S. (2014). Building capacity for resilient food systems. In Resilience for food and nutrition security. Eds. Fan, S., R. Pandya-Lorch, and S. Yosef. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, pp. 119-126.
Babu, S. and Akramov, K. (2021). Emerging food and nutrition security challenges in Central Asia – Implications for BRICS and Emerging Economies. In PB Anand, Flavio Comim, Shailaja Fennell, John Weiss, Eds. Oxford Handbook of BRICS and Emerging Economies. Oxford University Press, pp. 909-934.
Balasubramanya, S., Buisson, M.C., Saikia, P., MacDonald, K., Aslamy, S. and Horbulyk, T. (2016). Impact of water-user associations on water and land productivity, equity, and food security in Tajikistan. Baseline Technical Report.
Bates, R. H., & Block, S. (2011). Political institutions and agricultural trade interventions in Africa. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 93(2), 317-323.
Birner, R., Gupta, S., & Sharma, N. (2011). The political economy of agricultural policy reform in India: Fertilizers and electricity for irrigation (Vol. 174). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
Court, J., & Young, J. (2003). Bridging research and policy: insights from 50 case studies. Overseas Development Institute.
FAO (2009). FAO Crop and food security assessment Mission to Tajikistan. Mission Report. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.
FAO (2015). Regional overview of food insecurity: Europe and Central Asia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.
Government of the Republic of Tajikistan (2012). Program for reforming the agricultural sector of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012-2020. Dushanbe.
Haggblade, S., Babu, S. C., Harris, J., Mkandawire, E., Nthani, D., & Hendriks, S. L. (2016). Drivers of micronutrient policy change in Zambia: An application of the Kaleidoscope Model. Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
Herrera, V., & Post, A. E. (2014). Can developing countries both decentralize and depoliticize urban water services? Evaluating the legacy of the 1990s reform wave. World Development, 64, 621-641.
IFPRI/USAID (2019). Assessment of nutrition-sensitive value chains in the Feed the Future Zone of Influence in Tajikistan. Unpublished research report. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
IFPRI, CAREC Institute, and ADB (2019). Agriculture development in Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program member countries: Review of trends, challenges, and opportunities. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
Ilolov, M. Khudoiyev, M. (2001). Local Government in Tajikistan. In: V. Popa and I. Munteanu, eds. Developing new rules in the old environment. Local governments in Eastern Europe, in the Caucasus and in Central Asia. Open Society Institute. Budapest, 603-648.
Jumaboev, K., Anarbekov, O., William, B., & Manthrithilake, H. (2009). An approach to water user associations in Tajikistan (Draft) (No. 614-2017-2664).
Kazbekov, J., & Qureshi, A. S. (2011). Agricultural extension in Central Asia: Existing strategies and future needs (Vol. 145). IWMI.
Lerman, Z. (2012). Agrarian reform of the Republic of Tajikistan: Farm reform and restructuring cooperative development. Report, 1–38. Dushanbe: Rehovot.
Lee, R. H., Herwehe, L., & Scott, C. A. (2015). Integrating local users and multitiered institutions into the IWRM process. In Sustainability of Integrated Water Resources Management (pp. 365-386). Springer, Cham.
Meier, G. M. (1991). Politics and policy making in developing countries: Perspectives on the new political economy. Washington, D.C.: CSI Press.
O’Neil, P. H., & Fields, K. (2015). Cases in comparative politics. WW Norton & Company.
Ostrom, E. (2011). Background on the institutional analysis and development framework. Policy Studies Journal, 39(1), 7-27.
Posner, D. N. (2004). Civil society and the reconstruction of failed states. When states fail: causes and consequences. Eds. Robert I. Rotberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rausser, G. C., & Swinnen, J. (2011). Governance structures, political economy, and public policy. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 93(2), 310-316.
Resnick, D., Babu, S. C., Haggblade, S., Hendriks, S., & Mather, D. (2015). Conceptualizing drivers of policy change in agriculture, nutrition, and food security: The kaleidoscope model.
Sabatier, P. (2007). Theories of the policy process. Second edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Sehring, J. (2006). The politics of irrigation reform in Tajikistan (No. 29). Discussion Paper. / Zentrum fur Internationale Entwicklungs und Umweltforschung, No. 29, http://hdl.handle.net/10419/21925
Sehring, J. (2007). Irrigation reform in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 21(3), 277-290.
Shtaltovna, A. (2015). Knowledge gaps and rural development in Tajikistan: agricultural advisory services as a panacea? Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 22 (1), 25-41, https://doi.org/10.1080/1389224X.2014.997257
Statistical Agency under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan (2019). Regions of Tajikistan: Statistical Yearbook. Dushanbe.
Takeshima, H., Akramov, K., Park, A., Ilyasov, J., Liu, Y., and Ergasheva, T. (2020). Agriculture–nutrition linkages with heterogeneous, unobserved returns and costs: Insights from Tajikistan. Agricultural Economics 51(4), 553–565.
Takeshima, H., Akramov, K., Ilyasov, J., and Ergasheva, T. (2021). Agriculture-nutrition linkages, cooking-time, intrahousehold equality among women and children: Evidence from Tajikistan. European Journal of Development Research, https://doi.org/10.1057/s41287-021-00379-z.
Van Atta, D. (2009). « White Gold» or Fool’s Gold?: The Political Economy of Cotton in Tajikistan. Problems of post-communism, 56(2), 17-35.
Watson, D. D. (2013). Political economy synthesis: The food policy crisis (No. 2013/050). WIDER Working Paper.
World Bank (2009). Agricultural activities, water, and gender in Tajikistan’s rural sector: A social assessment of Konibodom, Bobojon Ghafurov, and Yovon. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
World Bank (2012). Farmer and farm workers perceptions of land Reform and Sustainable agriculture in Tajikistan. Washington, D.C.
World Bank (2017). Glass Half Full: Poverty Diagnostic of Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Tajikistan. Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/27830.
World Bank (2018). Tajikistan Systematic Country Diagnostic: Making the National Development Strategy 2030 a Success – Building the Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/29878.
World Bank (2020). Tajikistan agrifood sector and public expenditure review. Washington, D.C.